A baking oven is a confined cavity or tube where batter or dough is baked into bread, cookies, or other goods while surrounded by a hot atmosphere.
The baking oven is the virtual device in a bakery. Before obtaining a range, a baker should consider oven prices, fuel availability, affordability, possible assistance, the supply and quality of the materials, maintenance requirements, etc.
Why is the baking oven relevant?
A baking oven is the most critical processing step in the baking industry for several reasons:
- It is the workhorse of the bakery. The baking oven’s capacity usually controls a bakery’s production output.
- Inside this apparatus, heat and mass transfer processes co-occur, causing physicochemical and biological changes in the product.
- The process that gives the products their final qualities is baking in the oven (e.g., shelf life, flavor, texture, color, and aroma).
- It provides a crucial kill step that prevents pathogens from thriving within the product.
Types of baking oven
Baking ovens can be categorized as batch or continuous equipment and as using either direct or indirect heat exchange, depending on their mode of operation and heat transfer method.
The appropriate baking ovens for a bakery may depend on production capacity, product specifications, floor space, available energy sources, operating efficiencies, building materials, and maintenance needs.
Direct-fired oven (DFO)
DFOs use a combustible gas as an energy source to heat the air and goods in the baking chamber. Radiation from the flames (ribbon burners positioned above and below the oven band), the baking chamber’s top, base, and walls is the primary heat transfer method in a direct gas-fired oven. Because they use most of the fuel to heat and process the products, direct-fired ranges are remarkably efficient, reducing fuel consumption and operating expenses.
Indirect-fired oven (IFO)
IFOs use exchangers to heat the baking chamber indirectly. Since the combustion products stay inside the heat exchanger structure and do not directly contact the dough pieces, this oven is appropriate for delicate bakery goods (such as cakes and pastries). As a result, product contamination or odor impregnation is no longer possible. Due to its limited heat transmission capability and inefficient energy use, this oven is used less frequently(amount of fuel burned in a given period versus moisture loss from the baked goods during evaporation).
Electric baking oven
Electric baking ovens have construction features similar to DFOs and operate similarly in the heat transfer mechanism to bake the products. This type of oven uses electrical resistance in place of the traditional gas burners of DFOs.Electric-fired baking ovens are rarely used because of their high power requirements and cost per kWh. They also encounter scaling-up difficulties that demand additional study and industrial application.
Peel brick oven
The peel brick baking oven was one of human history’s first constructed baking units. It consists of a massive brick-and-mortar chamber. The dough pieces are kept in the room, attached to a floor made of refractory tiles. Fuel sources include wood and coal (combustion sources). Due to their construction characteristics (insulation capacity of materials and thickness of the walls), these ovens can steadily transfer radiant heat to the products and maintain high temperatures inside the baking chamber for prolonged periods. The ranges are operated manually and require special skills from the baker.
A batch vertical oven is a rack baking oven into which sheet pans can be wheeled after filling with racks for baking. Per baking cycle, this appliance can accommodate 8 to 20 sheet pans.
Several teams employ electric or fuel sources to shorten baking durations and create distinctive product features, while others install fans inside the baking chamber (convection drying). Due to its minimal floor area requirements and medium-to-long baking cycles, this oven is appropriate for retail enterprises. The goods are prepared to order and frequently provided unpackaged for immediate consumption. These ovens often contain programmable (saved) recipes that allow the user to alter the baking duration, temperature, air ventilation level, and steam impingement frequency.
Reel oven (also known as a revolving tray oven)
In a reel baking oven, trays or shelves are positioned on platforms and rotated around a horizontally centered axis. To fit the reel construction, a high-baking chamber is needed, conserving floor space. Reel ovens are usually directly fired with gas or electricity, with the heating source located centrally across the chamber’s floor. This type of oven is designed chiefly for retail bakeries or baking plants with small-scale production.
Reel ovens often do not generate a uniform distribution of heat transfer due to their revolving nature and interference structure for radiant heat transfer. Products placed on rotating sheet pans or trays may have uneven coloration or insufficient final moisture distribution.
Conveyorized oven (also known as a traveling tray oven)
The reel oven concept is replaced by two parallel endless conveying chains in conveyorized ovens, which move trays of goods along the length of the baking chamber as the dough pieces continuously enter and exit the stove. Their primary benefits are their ease of design and uniform baking because all goods move through the baking chamber in the same direction. Baking cycle time is directly influenced by band speed, which is now controlled by a motor drive. Conveyorized ovens may be single-lap or double-lap. In single-lap ovens, the products’ trays travel a single pass (back and forth). Instead of the single-lap oven’s two heat zones, the trays in a double-lap oven pass through four.
Large-scale bakeries frequently use tunnel ovens and continuous-mode baking machines.
This machine typically features a lengthy baking chamber (sometimes more than 80 meters), which travels in a straight conveyor band from one side (the loading point) to the other (the unloading point). Wire mesh or carbon steel sheets are two possible materials for the conveyor band. Tunnel ovens are commonly powered by natural gas (used for baking) and electricity (powering air circulation and conveying systems). Multiple baking zones may be created within the baking chamber. Due to the application of a temperature sequence made possible, the baker has more control over the complexity of manipulating baking parameters and the flexibility of the baking circumstances.
Hybrid baking ovens integrate the three heat transfer methods by taking advantage of their complementary properties. Due to the complexity of its design, control architecture, and energy sources, this sort of oven typically demands a high level of automation.
Maintenance of baking ovens
Oven maintenance focuses on two primary goals:
Reducing the chance of lubricant contamination, under-processing, and foreign material contamination can help to prevent physical, biological, and chemical risks to food safety.
- Customers may be at risk of food safety due to these risks and reputational damage and financial loss.
- Prevent malfunctions of the mechanical, electrical, and thermal equipment that could interfere with the normal functioning of the oven and increase downtime to reduce the risk of significant financial losses.
Inspecting, maintaining, and calibrating the equipment for flawless operation is essential. Welded parts, drive chains and belts, motors and drives, steam and air lines and fittings, seals and gaskets in pipework, bearings, conveyor belts, bands, temperature sensors, etc. all require extra care, string, and humidity exhaust systems, electrical control systems, and fans (axial or centrifugal).
Here are the top 5 best baking ovens
Philips HD6975/00 25 Litre Digital Oven Toaster Grill, Grey, 25 liters
About this item
- Capacity: 25 liters, for 4-5 people; Cooking capabilities: baking, grilling, toasting
- Powerful 1500W, Ready signal; Opti temp technology(Even Browning); One-touch ten preset menu; One-touch Preheat functionality
- Includes oven toaster grill, Baking Tray, Grill Rack, Tongs, Crumb Tray, and Skewer Rods;90-minute auto-cut-off
- Capacity: 25 liters; Warranty: 2-year warranty on the product
- Size Name: 25-Litre
Lifelong LLOT10 10 Litres Oven, Toaster & Griller with Auto Shut Off and 30 Minute Timer, OTG Oven for Baking Cake, Pizza, Grilling, and Toasting at Home ( 2 Years Warranty, Black)
About this item
- Heat-Resistant Handle | Cut off for automatic thermostat | Maximum Timer Limit: 30 minutes | Temperature Range: 100 Degree to 250 Degree
- Cooking Capability: Baking | Grilling | Toasting; Comes with two years brand warranty
- Capacity : 10 Litres | 1000 W | Suitable for 2-3 People
- With your Lifelong LLOT10 Oven Toaster Griller, You may cook mouthwatering dishes like roasted papad, cheese toasts, bread toast, baked vegetables, pizza, cake, and many others | Oven for Kitchen
- Accessories: 1N Baking Tray, 1N Wire Rack
AGARO Marvel 19 Liters Oven Toaster Griller, Motorised Rotisserie Cake Baking OTG with 5 Heating Mode, (Black)
About this item
- Roast, bake, grill, toast, and more.
- 5 Heating Modes: Top Heating I Bottom Heating I Top & Bottom Heating I Rotisserie with Top & Bottom Heating
- Adjustable temperature from 100 °C to 250 °C
- A motorized rotisserie with forks for spit-roasting of meat or vegetables.
- Heat-resistant tempered glass window with an illuminated chamber.
- Automatic Thermostat, Auto Shut Off I Ready Bell
- Power Consumption: 1280 Watts I Operating Voltage: 230V/50 Hz
- 1 Year Manufacturer’s Warranty
Pigeon by Stovekraft Baker’s Collection Oven Toaster Grill (14325) 16 Liters OTG without Rotisserie for Oven Toaster and Grill for grilling and baking Cakes (Grey)
About this item
- OTG Cooking capability: Baking, Grilling, Toasting, Timer with auto shut off, Element Selection Switch: Yes
- Includes: 1 -Pigeon OTG 16 Litre, 1 -barbeque rack, 1 -crumb tray, 1 -pan handle, 1 -skewer rods with warranty card
- OTG comes with high-grade knobs for high durability and easy operation, a glass door for easy monitoring, an automatic timer-off with an alarm, and an adjustable thermostat temperature between 100-250 C.
- Color Name: Black; Size Name: Standard; Finish Type: Matt
Hamilton Beach Easy Reach Sure-Crisp Airfryer Oven Toaster Grill with 16L Capacity | Stainless Steel, 1400W | All in One – Air fry, Oven, Toast, Grill, Bake, Broil, Dehydrate, Reheat & Roast
About this item
- Unlimited control: Other than pre-set options, it has bake, broil, toast, air fry, etc. functions. Or you can control the temperature and timer or keep it in auto mode to ensure perfect results, enabling you to cook like a pro.
- 30-minute timer with the stay-on setting, auto shutoff, and ready bell: The 30-minute timer with a ready bell helps you keep track of cooking time. The Stay On location The extender makes it easy to extend the cooking time when needed, while the automatic shutoff provides peace of mind.